Addiction and Abuse
Commonly Abused Drugs
Mental health disorders
Medication assisted treatment includes Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs). It is a combination of behavioral therapy (counseling and medication to treat substance/drug use disorders.
Medication-assisted treatment is effective in the treatment of Opioid Use Disorders (OUD). It helps people to sustain recovery.
The substance use disorder prevention that promotes appoints recovery and treatment for patients and communities (SUPPORT) act renders the practitioner's greater flexibility in the provision of medication-assisted treatment (MAT).
Medicated-Assisted Treatment (MAT) is the use of FDA-approved medications, in combination with counseling and behavioral therapies. MAT aims to provide a "whole-patient" approach to the treatment of substance use disorders.
MAT has proved to be clinically effective to reduce inpatient detoxification services for individuals with OUDs.
The full recovery of the patient is the goal of MAT. For this purpose, it includes treatment approach inclusive of:
Instead of substituting one drug for another, medications relieve the withdrawal symptoms and psychological cravings that cause chemical imbalances in the body.
MAT programs provide a safe and controlled level of medication to overcome the use of an abused opioid. With proper doses under MAT, the medications used have no adverse effects on a person’s intelligence, mental capability, physical functioning, or employability.
Some of the medications used in MAT are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse. Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs prescribed under MAT are classified by the law into five different categories or schedules. The classification is dependent upon a drug’s acceptable medical use and potential for misuse.
Usage of all 3 drugs has been proved to be safe and effective in combination with counseling and psychological support.
This medication-assisted treatment for an OUD allows a provider to work with patients selecting the best treatment suitable according to the individual's requirement.
The chronic nature of OUD necessitates the continuous re-evaluation, periodically for continuing MAT.
There is no maximum recommendation duration of maintenance treatment. in some cases treatment has to be continued for an indefinite time.
Buprenorphine suppresses and reduces cravings for the abused drug. It can come in a pill form or sublingual tablet that is placed under the tongue.
Methadone tricks the brain into thinking it’s still getting the abused drug. The person is not getting high from it and feels normal, so withdrawal doesn’t occur. Pregnant or breastfeeding women must inform their treatment provider before taking methadone. It is the only drug used in MAT approved for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Naltrexone works differently than methadone and buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid dependency. If a person using naltrexone relapses and uses the abused drug, naltrexone blocks the euphoric and sedative effects of the abused drug and prevents feelings of euphoria.
Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone are the most common drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder. Although none of these drugs renders a 100% cure for the disorder, these have proved quite effective in addicts of alcohol.
Disulfiram is a medication that treats chronic alcoholism. This drug is offered in a tablet form. Taken once a day, its side effects include nausea, headache, vomiting, chest pains, and difficulty in breathing.
This medication works to prevent people from drinking alcohol.
Naltrexone blocks the euphoric effects and feelings of intoxication. It helps to reduce drinking behaviors deterring addicts and motivating them to stay in treatment and take medications. Also, it avoids relapses.
The law allows MAT professionals to provide treatment and services in a range of settings that includes hospitals, correctional facilities, offices, and remote clinics.
MAT patients must receive counseling, which could include different forms of behavioral therapy. These services are required along with medical, vocational, educational, and other assessment and treatment services.
If MAT medications are allowed to be kept at home, they must be kept out of the reach of children. Methadone in its liquid form is colored and is sometimes mistaken for a soft drink. The usage of MAT medications in children may lead to death when it has overdosed.
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